Eritrea Tigrinya: ኤርትራ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara. It is bordered by Sudan in the west, Ethiopia in the south, and Djibouti in the southeast. The northeastern and eastern parts of Eritrea have an extensive coastline along the Red Sea. The nation has a total area of approximately 117,600 km (45,406 sq mi), and includes the Dahlak Archipelago and several of the Hanish Islands. Its toponymEritrea is based on the Greek name for the Red Sea (Ἐρυθρὰ Θάλασσα Erythra Thalassa), which was first adopted for Italian Eritrea in 1890.
Eritrea is a multi-ethnic country, with nine recognized ethnic groups in its population of around 5 million. Most residents speak languages from the Afroasiatic family, either of the Ethiopian Semitic languages or Cushitic branches. Among these communities, the Tigrinyas make up about 55% of the population, with the Tigre people constituting around 30% of inhabitants. In addition, there are a number of Nilo-Saharan-speaking Nilotic ethnic minorities. Most people in the territory adhere to Christianity or Islam.
The Kingdom of Aksum, covering much of modern-day Eritrea and northern Ethiopia, was established during the first or second centuries AD. It adopted Christianity around the middle of the fourth century. In medieval times much of Eritrea fell under the Medri Bahri kingdom, with a smaller region being part of Hamasien.
The creation of modern-day Eritrea is a result of the incorporation of independent, distinct kingdoms and sultanates (for example, Medri Bahri and the Sultanate of Aussa) eventually resulting in the formation of Italian Eritrea. After the defeat of the Italian colonial army in 1942, Eritrea was administered by the British Military Administration until 1952. Following the UN General Assembly decision, in 1952, Eritrea would govern itself with a local Eritrean parliament but for foreign affairs and defense it would enter into a federal status with Ethiopia for a period of 10 years. However, in 1962 the government of Ethiopia annulled the Eritrean parliament and formally annexed Eritrea. But the Eritreans that argued for complete Eritrean independence since the ouster of the Italians in 1941, anticipated what was coming and in 1960 organized the Eritrean Liberation Front in opposition. In 1991, after 30 years of continuous armed struggle for independence, the Eritrean liberation fighters entered the capital city, Asmara, in victory.
Eritrea is a one-party state in which national legislative elections have never been held since independence. According to Human Rights Watch, the Eritrean government’s human rights record is among the worst in the world. The Eritrean government has dismissed these allegations as politically motivated. The compulsory military service requires long, indefinite conscription periods, which some Eritreans leave the country to avoid. Because all local media is state-owned, Eritrea was also ranked as having the second-least press freedom in the global Press Freedom Index, behind only North Korea.
The sovereign state of Eritrea is a member of the African Union, the United Nations, and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development, and is an observer in the Arab League alongside Brazil, Venezuela, India and Turkey
Hamasien (Ge’ez ሓማሴን) was a historical province including and surrounding Asmara, part of modern Eritrea. In 1996 the historical Awraja (province) of Hamasie was divided by PFDJ Government in 7 Districts (ZOBA) :- Maekel, Debub, Northern Red Sea, Gash-Barka, and Anseba regions.
Hamasien’s population predominantly follow Oriental Orthodox Christianity and are members of the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahdo Church, with a considerable minority from the Sunni Muslim, Roman Catholic, and Lutheran communities. Traditionally being the center of the Kebessa (the Eritrean Highlands), it was the locality of the old palace town of Debarwa (the capital of Bahr NegusYeshaq). The border was changed further to place Debarwa in the province of Seraye before its present status of being the capital of the Tselema district in the Debub (Southern) region.
The former province republic of Hamassien was the political and economic center of Eritrea; judging from excavations in the Sembel area outside Asmara, it has been so since at least the 9th century BC. The earliest surviving appearance of the name “Hamasien” is believed to have been the region HEMITIC + SEMITIC. Mentioned in a Sabaic inscription of the Axumite king Ezana.The region may have been mentioned as early as Puntite times by Ancient Egyptian records as ‘”Amasu”, a region of Punt.
During the early medieval centuries, it was ruled by the Raesi`s of the Hazega and Tseazega and the Bahri negasi making their center of administration in Debarwa. According to Francisco Alvares, writing in the early 16th century, the Raesi of the Tseazegas (Habtesulus) had been able to collect tax by extending their authority almost as far as Suakin in modern Sudan. Despite the Emperor of Ethiopia‘s allegations and grants of control of the country of the Bahri negesitat the Zagwe and Solomonic dynasties, the 1984 “Proceedings of the Permanent Peoples’ Tribunal of the International League for the Rights and Liberation of Peoples,” declares that “There was no administration that connected Hamasin and Serae to the centre of the Ethiopian Kingdom With the decline of the importance of the Midri Bahri in the 17th to 19th centuries, the province enjoyed a period of communal rule under councils of village elders, the so-called shimagile who enforced HIGI-ENDABA (traditional laws) which had prevailed uniquely in the region alongside federal authority since ancient times. The region appeared in European maps as ‘The Republic of Hamasien’. In the late 19th century, Hamasien was briefly invaded and occupied by the Ethiopian Emperor Yohannes IV who granted control of the region to Ras Alula. Hamasien forces wfought and defited the Ottomans (Turky) initially and later the Italian colonialists and defited the m in Deguali. Following the death of Emperor Yohannes at the Battle of Gallabat, Hamasien was occupied by the Italians, who incorporated it into their colony of Eritrea and making one of its villages, Asmara, the capital of the colony, a status it retains today as the capital of the “sovereign country of Eritrea”.
ኣውርጃ ሓማሴን ኣብ 6 ወረዳታት ትኽፈል። ንሰን ድማ እዘን ዝስዕባ እየን፣
ወረዳ ድንበዛን፣ ዋና ከተማ ወረዳ ደንበዛን ዕዲ ተከሌዛን
ወረዳ ዓንሰባ፣ ዋና ከተማ ዓዲ ንኣምን
ወረዳ ካርነሽም ዋና ከተማ ወከዛግር
ወረዳ ለጎጩዋ ፣ ዋና ከተማ ሕምብርቲ
ወረዳ ሰሓርቲ ዋና ከተማ ዓዲ ሓበሻ
ወረዳ ደቀተሽም ዋና ከተማ ሃዘጋ
Akele Guzai was a province in the interior of Eritrea until 1996, when the newly independent national government consolidated all provinces into six regions. The province’s population is:-1500,000 with area of 4227km square,is mostly consisted of Tigrigna– and Saho-speaking ethnic groups. Akele Guzai is home to more than three-fourths of the total Saho-speaking population in Eritrea. The Tigrinya people of Akele Guzai are mostly followers of the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, while the Saho are predominantly Sunni Muslims. The province of Akele Guzai is now mostly part of the Northern Red Sea Region and the Southern Region.
Akele Guzai is one of the most ancient regions of Eritrea. It has an inscriptional record going back to at least the 9th century BC, the earliest example of the In the Ge’ez script. The province was part of Dʿmt, which would evolve into the Kingdom of Aksum.
Akele Guzai’s name has been connected by some to the Gaze of the Monumentum Adulitanum (which later medieval Greek notes in the margins associate with the Aksumite people). If the note regarding the Gaze is accurate, it would connect the name of Akele Guzai to the Agʿazyān or Agʿazi (Ge’ez speakers) of the Kingdom of Dʿmt in Eritrea and northern Ethiopia. This connection has been rejected by linguists in modern times, however, due to the lack of the middle voiced pharyngeal fricative in the triliteral roots, which is usually preserved in Tigrinya.
Instead, the name may be connected with the Agazian clan conquered by the 4th-century king Ezana of Axum, and the Agʿaze(unvocalized ‘GZ, referring either to a person or a group) of the Hawulti at Matara. Along with Agame in Ethiopia, it was a main center of Aksumite culture (second only to Western Tigray, where the capital was located), with a distinct sub-culture that separated the two regions from that of Western Tigray (Shire, Axum, Yeha), Central Eritrea (Serae, Hamasien, and Adulis), and frontier areas in northern Eritrea and Central Ethiopia.
In the Middle Ages, parts of southern Akele Guzai were briefly part of the larger province of Bur, Ethiopia, which also included Agame, some northeastern Afar lowlands, and the Buri Peninsula; southern Akele Guzai and Agame were part of “Upper” (La’ilay) Bur, while the lowlands were further distinguished as “Lower” (Tahtay).
Akele Guzai ኣከልን ጉዛይን
ኣውራጃ ሰራየ SERAYE
Serae was a region of the Kingdom of D’mt ዳእማት ወይ ዳዕማት, which would evolve in the Aksum ኣክሱም. During this Axumite period, the region became a successful trading region as it lay between the Red Sea port of Adulis ኣዱሊስ, Asmara ኣስመራ, and Axum ኣክሱም.
- Tsilima ጽልማ
- Debub ደቡብ
- GuH’tsi’A ጉሕጭዓ
- Mai Tsa’eda ማይጻዕዳ/ ማጫዕዳ
- Meraguz መራጉዝ
- QoHain ቆሓይን
- Gundet ጒንደት
- Aila ዓይላ
- Sef’a ሰፍኣ
- Adi-Gurotto ዓዲጒረቶ
- Deqi Digna ደቂ ድግና
- Deqi Aites ደቂ ጣዒስ
- Zeban Ona ዝባን ዑና
- Dembelas ደምበላስ
- Zaide’kolom ዛይደ’ኮሎም
- Anagir ዓናግር
- Medri Wedi’Sebera ምድሪ ወዲ ሰበራ
- Kuno Redae ኩኖ ረዳእ
- Etan Zere ዕጣን ዘርአ
Medri Felasi ምድሪ ፈላሲ
8 Provinces of (Midre-Bahry) Eritrea
8 ጥንታውያን ኣውራጃታት ምድረባሕሪ
Akeleguzay => እከለ ጉዛይ
BarKa => ባርካ
Denkalia => ደንከል
Gash-Setit => ጋስ ሰቲት
Hamasien => ሓማሴን
Sahel => ሳሕል
Semhar => ሰምሃር
Sennhit => ሰንሒት
ሓልዮት መርበብ ሓበሬታ ደቀባት ኤርትራ